The Guna Indians of the San Blas
Archipelago of Panamá are famous for their tapestry designs that are used on
their ‘molas’. Molas are hand-made
textiles that form part of the traditional women’s clothing of the Guna. The
full costume includes a patterned wrapped skirt (saburet), a red and yellow
headscarf (musue), arm and leg beads (wini), a gold nose ring (olasu) and
earrings in addition to the mola blouse (dulemor).
In the Guna language, ‘mola’ means
‘clothing’, and the swirling designs are coveted not just by artists all over
the world but also by companies advertising their products and by the world of
fashion. On sale in New York, items made up of combinations of mola squares are
amazingly popular and pricey, whilst on the San Blas Islands they are the
everyday component of towels, blankets, sheets, T-shirts, skirts and other
sportswear company Nike was preparing to release to the public a new trainer
labelled ‘the Air Force 1’ which features a graphic design of the Puerto Rican
native Coqui frog. The Guna people of Panamá, however, objected to the
trainer’s launch and pointed out that the design was based on the community’s
traditional ‘mole’ textile.
“We are not
against our mola being commercialised. What we oppose is it being done without
consulting us first,” said Belisario López, a Guna leader. Lawyers for the Guna
explained that the trainer was created without the community’s permission,
disregarding their intellectual property rights which are recognised in
commentators on this matter have taken Nike to task for their poor research in
believing that the design was Puerto Rican rather than belonging to the Guna.
The trainer was due to be launched on 6th June this year, but in May
Agence France-Presse reported that Nike had withdrawn the product and would no
longer offer it, as they had planned, for $100.
The community is
seeking compensation from Nike.
Agence France-Presse, 22 May 2019, ‘Nike ditches shoe design after
Panama’s indigenous Guna protest’
Telesur, 24 May 2019, ‘Indigenous Guna
Force Nike to Drop Shoe with ‘Stolen Design’
This text box is referred to in the book as Box 8.1 (Page 151)
The International Labour Organisation’s Convention No. 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples – normally simply referred to as ILO 169 – was adopted at the International Labour Conference held in Geneva in June 1989. The Convention observed that “in many parts of the world these peoples do not enjoy the fundamental human rights to the same degree as other members of the national societies to which they belong, and recognised their aspiration to exercise control of their own institutions, their own livelihood and their economic development.”
The Convention “applies to tribal peoples in independent countries whose social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community, and whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions …”
“The basic concepts of the Convention are respect and participation. Respect for the culture, spirituality, social and economic organisation and their identity, all constituting essential premises regarding the enduring nature of indigenous and tribal peoples. … Convention No. 169 also presumes that indigenous and tribal peoples are able to speak for themselves and to take part in the decision-making process as it affects them and that they have a right to take part in this decision-making process, …”
In essence, the Convention recognises:
Land and property rights for indigenous peoples
Equality and liberty for indigenous peoples
Autonomy of indigenous peoples 
Only twenty-two nations have ratified the Convention. The following Central American nations have ratified the Convention:
This text box is referred to in the book as Box 8.2 (Page 152)
In September 2007 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The Declaration had been negotiated for over twenty years between nation states and indigenous representatives.
143 nations voted in favour of the Declaration with 11 abstentions and only four nations (Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States) voting against.
Survival International director Stephen Corry said, ‘The declaration on indigenous peoples, with its recognition of collective rights, will raise international standards in the same way as the universal declaration on human rights did nearly 60 years ago. It sets a benchmark by which the treatment of tribal and indigenous peoples can be judged, and we hope it will usher in an era in which abuse of their rights is no longer tolerated.’
The declaration recognises the rights of indigenous peoples to ownership of their land and to live as they wish. It also affirms that they should not be moved from their lands without their free and informed consent.
From 20-24 April, 2009, Indigenous representatives from the Arctic, North America, Asia, Pacific, Latin America, Africa, Caribbean and Russia met in Anchorage, Alaska for the Indigenous Peoples’ Global Summit on Climate Change. We thank the Ahtna and the Dena’ina Athabascan Peoples in whose lands we gathered.
Calls for Action
6. We challenge States to abandon false solutions to climate change that negatively impact Indigenous Peoples’ rights, lands, air, oceans, forests, territories and waters. These include nuclear energy, large-scale dams, geo-engineering techniques, “clean coal”, agro-fuels, plantations, and market based mechanisms such as carbon trading, the Clean Development Mechanism, and forest offsets. The human rights of Indigenous Peoples to protect our forests and forest livelihoods must be recognized, respected and ensured.